What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms? Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption. But, things just aren’t that easy. There are a number of potential problems with this interpretation of the fossil record. For example, it is interesting to note that some general kinds of fossilized creatures are very generally found in the same relative vertical orientation, with respect to each other in the fossil record, that they would have naturally been found in during life. Single celled organisms make their first appearance in the lowest layers followed by multicelled ocean bottom-dwelling creatures like sponges and worms etc. Higher up come creatures like bony fishes, then land plants and animals, then birds and larger land animals.
Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago.
It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present. If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking.
One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position. Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute.
Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.
Potassium-Argon Dating. Potassium-Argon dating has the advantage that the argon is an inert gas that does not react chemically and would not be expected to be included in the solidification of a rock, so any found inside a rock is very likely the result of radioactive decay of potassium. Since the argon will escape if the rock is melted, the dates obtained are to the last molten time for the rock.
I’ve listened as many people have protested the Biblical doctrine of the young earth. The earth must be old. Wood can be petrified by two basic processes, both of which usually involve burial in volcanic ash. This ash decomposes in the presence of water, enriching the groundwater with silica. In the first type of petrification, the wood decays in a hot, silica-rich environment. As each molecule of wood decomposes and is carried away, it is replaced by a molecule of silica.
Eventually the replacement is complete, with the mineral impurities in the silica being responsible for an array of beautiful colors in the final product. This type of petrified wood can be polished, and often becomes an object of incredible beauty. Once silicification is complete, there is no organic material remaining, but since on occasion the light and dark portions of the tree’s growth rings may decay at different rates, hints of the tree rings may be preserved if the minerals present change over time.
Many of the petrified trees found in the Petrified “Forest” of Arizona are of this type. The other type of petrification involves the total infiltration of the porous wood by silica-rich water. The silica or in a few cases calcite, or a combination of both plugs up the pores, preventing complete decay.
Photo by Andrew A. A model age is calculated by assuming a value for the original isotopic composition of the molten liquid from which the rock solidified. In the case of K-Ar, it is assumed that when the rock formed, there was no Ar in it derived from radioactive decay of K. An isochron is a graphical plot of the isotopic compositions of the samples. It allows an isochron age to be calculated from a straight line plotted through the graph of the results. The method effectively requires multiple assumptions, namely that the initial isotopic ratio of each sample was the same as the ratio of every other sample in the group.
K/Ar Dating II: Click on Potassium-Argon Dating II to see the second page which contains a possible scenario that would allow K-Ar dates to make sense within a short age chronology. Data is used to help illustrate a possible scenario allowing K-Ar dates to be interpreted in terms or a short age chronology.
Thus we do not know the absolute age of any given layer. The civilizations that deposited the trash had a culture and industrial capabilities that evolved through time. The oldest inhabitants used primitive stone tools, later inhabitants used cups made of ceramics, even later inhabitants eventually used tin cans and then changed to Aluminum cans, and then they developed a technology that used computers.
Similar cultures must have existed in both areas and lived at the same time. Thus we can make correlation’s between the layers found at the different sites, by reasoning that layers containing similar discarded items artifacts were deposited during the same time period. Thus, we can recognize a hiatus, or break in the depositional sequence at the UNO site. The surface marking in the break in deposition would be called an unconformity in geologic terms, and represents time missing from the depositional record.
The trash pits contain some clues to absolute age:
The isochron method Many radioactive dating methods are based on minute additions of daughter products to a rock or mineral in which a considerable amount of daughter-type isotopes already exists. These isotopes did not come from radioactive decay in the system but rather formed during the original creation of the elements. In this case, it is a big advantage to present the data in a form in which the abundance of both the parent and daughter isotopes are given with respect to the abundance of the initial background daughter.
Limitations on K-Ar Dating The Potassium-Argon dating method is an invaluable tool for those archaeologists and paleoanthropologists studying the earliest evidence for human evolution. As with any dating technique, there are some significant limitations.
Scott J Shifferd Comments Abiogenesis and the evolution of genera are not new ideas. These emerged from mythology. Ancient Egyptian mythology records the myth, and later, Greek philosophers accepted it like Anaximander and Democritus. He reported that Egyptians believed that bestial man hunted and gathered, invented language from grunts, and discovered fire.
Does that sound familiar? Such theories are not original to science. The universe is fine-tuned for life. The cosmological constants perfectly set against naturalistic odds. The earth is precisely balanced for life.
Departures from this assumption are quite common, particularly in areas of complex geological history, but such departures can provide useful information that is of value in elucidating thermal histories. A deficiency of 40 Ar in a sample of a known age can indicate a full or partial melt in the thermal history of the area.
Reliability in the dating of a geological feature is increased by sampling disparate areas which have been subjected to slightly different thermal histories. Ar—Ar dating is a similar technique which compares isotopic ratios from the same portion of the sample to avoid this problem. Applications[ edit ] Due to the long half-life , the technique is most applicable for dating minerals and rocks more than , years old. For shorter timescales, it is unlikely that enough 40 Ar will have had time to accumulate in order to be accurately measurable.
The potassium-argon (K-Ar) isotopic dating method is especially useful for determining the age of lavas. Developed in the s, it was important in developing the theory of plate tectonics and in calibrating the geologic time scale.
Australopithecus africanus — The word “Australopithecus” means “southern ape. Raymond Dart, professor of anatomy at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, was the first to study these fossils. In at Taung in South Africa, Dart discovered a fossil skull consisting of a full face, teeth and jaws, and an endocranial cast of the brain. The brain size was cc. Its age is currently felt to be around two to three million years old.
Dart was convinced that some teeth were man-like and thus concluded a transition between apes and man. His opinions on the matter of this particular skull were largely scorned by the scientists of this time who considered it nothing more than a young chimpanzee now considered to be about three years of age. The skull was soon known derisively as “Dart’s baby. With Piltdown Man’s human cranium and apelike jaw, it was hard to reconcile it to the Taung Child.
Although Dart gave up fossil hunting for some time, all was not lost.
This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point:
Potassium-argon dating, method of determining the time of origin of rocks by measuring the ratio of radioactive argon to radioactive potassium in the rock. This dating method is based upon the decay of radioactive potassium to radioactive argon in minerals and rocks; potassium .
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.
At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column. Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available.
See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric  dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history.
Download Potassium-Argon and Argon-Argon Dating of Crustal Rocks and the Problem of Excess Argon PDF According to the assumptions foundational to potassium-argon (K-Ar) and argon-argon (Ar-Ar) dating of rocks, there should not be any daughter radiogenic argon (40 Ar *) in rocks when they form.
Manicouagan crater, Quebec, Canada is visible in the background. Exhumed paleoplains of the Precambrian shield of North America. American Journal of Science, , — The viscous flow behavior of diaplectic glass and fusion-formed glass: A Comparitive study on shocked anorthosite from Manicouagan crater, Canada.
Diaplectic glass and fusion-formed glass: Comparative studies on shocked anorthosite from Manicouagan crater, Canada. Diaplectic labradorite glass from the Manicouagan impact crater. Physical properties, crystallization, structural and genetic implications.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.
We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
After mating, the female then builds a nest elsewhere to raise the young alone. Franco Atirador Stephen J. Gould argued that these enormous antlers, which required great mineral resources from plants to support and prevented the elk from navigating through forests, were largely responsible for their extinction. The positioning of the antlers were poor for combat between males, but were great for intimidating rivals and impressing females. Bird-of-Paradise Bird of Paradise These birds have evolved a wide variety of plumage displays for the sole purpose of attracting a mate.
Duck genitalia and mechanical barriers Credit: Clark1,2 and Richard O. Prum Ducks copulate through rape. As a result, females have evolved mazelike vaginas, complete with dead-ends to prevent insemination. Aphids go from asexual to sexual in times of stress. Eating Cicadas can trigger a shellfish allergic reaction. Antifreeze proteins and lots and lots of other examples of convergent evolution.
How old is the earth? First published in Refuting Evolution , Chapter 8 Evolutionists fallaciously think that billions of years of time makes particles-to-people evolution possible. So Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science presents what it claims is evidence for vast time spans. This is graphically illustrated in a chart on pages 36— The Bible states that man was made six days after creation, about 6, years ago.
Scientific dating has confirmed the long residence of Aboriginal people in Australia. A number of methods are used, all of which have their advantages, limitations and level of accuracy. Complex dating problems often use a variety of techniques and information to arrive at the best answer. Artefacts and other materials can be dated in relative terms by observing which layer of sediments they are found in. This applies the geological principle that under normal circumstances younger layers of sediment will be deposited on top of older layers.
This ‘law of superimposition’ works in the well-defined layers of the Willandra lunettes , but only dates objects as younger or older than adjacent layers.